In the early 2000s, this procedure was standardized and generalized throughout in what is now known as the Hershberger assay.
Injectable steroids are typically administered into the muscle, not into the vein, to avoid sudden changes in the amount of the drug in the bloodstream.
The New England Journal of Medicine.
Effects on women include deepening of the voice, facial hair growth, and possibly a decrease in breast size.
Italy passed a law in 2000 where penalties range up to three years in prison if an athlete has tested positive for banned substances.
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